Following the atrocities committed in Paris in early January when 17 people were murdered in cold blood at the office of satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo and Jewish deli Hyper Cacher, people were once again shocked by the attacks in Copenhagen which resulted in the death of one person at a freedom of speech debate, followed by the death of a Jewish man on guard outside the city’s main synagogue. The perpetrators of the Paris and Copenhagen shootings were not linked, though in both instances they had two obvious goals: punishing those who, in their view, had insulted the prophet Muhammad, and targeting Jews. The number of Jewish casualties in both attacks have sparked debates about anti-Semitism which, sadly, appears to be on the rise again across Europe. This debate has been further fuelled by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu who called for mass immigration to Israel.
“Of course, Jews deserve protection in every country,” he said. “But we say to Jews, to our brothers and sisters: Israel is your home. We are preparing and calling for the absorption of mass immigration from Europe. I would like to tell all European Jews and all Jews wherever they are: Israel is the home of every Jew”. 
The forgotten woman of MENA history that we will be looking at is most commonly known as Lubna of Cordoba, although she is sometimes referred to as Labna or Labhana. A user of the forum at www.ummah.com gave their own insight into why she has been forgotten, by quite simply stating that: ‘she is a woman and has no “famous” husband’, which may very well be the case. Only very little is known about her mainly because there are very few sources about this remarkable woman, and the credibility of these sources can often be questioned. In spite of these setbacks it is still worth mentioning those things that are known, because it is important that people remember her name.
Lubna lived in the 10th century C.E. and was raised in Cordoba at the court of Sultan Abd Al-Rahman III, a descendant of Abd Al-Rahman I who is said to be the only member of the Umayyad dynasty to survive the Abbasid coup of 750. He subsequently fled to Al-Andalus and established his own Sultanate. Many different roles and talents have been attributed to Lubna, though it is not clear how much of this is actually true. A list of roles that have been ascribed to her include: poet, copyist, scribe, royal library’s acquisitions expert, private secretary, and mathematician. As mentioned earlier, it is not known which of these are true, and writer Kamila Shamsie argues there is reason to believe that Lubna could possibly be the embodiment of two or perhaps three women at the court of Cordoba who, combined, were all these things . But let’s first see what is generally said about this one woman known as Lubna of Cordoba before we descend into speculation.
Freedom of speech is often considered to be the pinnacle of democracy, yet through the years we have seen many instances where this concept has been misused and even abused. When the concept of ‘freedom of speech’ is stretched beyond recognition in order to polarise a particular group within any given society, we are no long dealing with freedom of any kind, or someone merely stating their personal opinion. In cases like these, we are dealing with hate speech, intended to incite hostility and demean the group of people in question. This is exactly what Geert Wilders, leader of the Dutch ‘Party for Freedom’ (PVV), was guilty of when he attacked the entire Moroccan-Dutch population for the umpteenth time in March 2014.
On 19 March 2014, on the eve of the municipal elections, Mr. Wilders led an anti-Moroccan chant whilst addressing a large group of supporters at a cafe in The Hague. He asked the question: “Would you like to have more or fewer Moroccans in our country?” to which the crowd responded: “Fewer! Fewer! Fewer!” Wilders then replied: “Then we’ll fix it for you.” In addition to this, in a later televised interview he referred to the Moroccan population as “Moroccan scum.” 
In 1972, Sally Priesland was ordained at Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati and pronounced the ‘first ever female rabbi’. What was not known at the time, however, is that one remarkable woman had preceded her and had been ordained four decades earlier. Her name was Regina Jonas, and she was killed, along with so many others, in Auschwitz in 1944. Very little is known about her, and it is unlikely that we will ever be able to discover more. It was purely coincidental that her records were found in the obscure Gesamtarchiv der deutschen Juden (The Archive of German Jews) in East Berlin in the 1990s. These records only became accessible after the wall came down, which explains why she was only rediscovered nearly half a century after her untimely death.